Mamure Kalesi in Cilicia





The castle seen from the coast road  

Mamure Kalesi is the best preserved medieval castle on the south coast of Turkey.

The castle was built in the third century AD as a Roman fortress. In 1988, during excavations inside and around the castle, foundation walls of buildings with mosaic floors were found, which were classified as bathrooms and residential buildings.



The castle was rebuilt under the rule of the Kingdom of small Armenia. Since this was closely allied with the Crusader States, Franconian architectural elements can also be found in the castle complex.


Southern castle courtyard in front of the upper castle  

In 1375 it was taken over by the Karamanogullari after the end of the small Armenian empire. Among these it was extended in the 14th century. An inscription on the north side states "Karamanoglu Alâeddinoglu Mehmedoglu Sultan Ibrahim" as the builder and as the date of construction the tenth month of the Islamic lunar year 854 (November/ December 1450greg.). Later the Ottomans took over the building, which they expanded again in the 19th century and used until the end of their empire.


The building inscription  



The castle measures about 240 m in west-east direction, from north to south 170 m. It is surrounded to the east and north by a ditch connected to the sea. The main gate is on the east side next to the main tower, another gate is on the northwest side, where the building inscription is also attached.



Inside the castle complex  



The interior of the castle is divided into three courtyards by walls. The mighty outer walls include 36 partly round, partly angular towers, the main tower to the east has a dodecagonal ground plan. The two-storey walls are provided with battlements and loopholes and can be accessed via a branched system of stairs and corridors.





The Ottoman Mosque


In the castle courtyards there are, partly integrated into the walls, stables, living rooms, bathhouses, storage rooms and a mosque. The latter was probably built by the Karamanogullari at first, the present building shows the classical elements of the Ottoman architecture of the 16th century.

Storage rooms and stables    
Photos: @chim    
Translation aid:    
Source: Wikipedia and others